Credit Bureau Secrets Exposed Pdf

Credit bureau secrets, should be the proper pick for you. These letters are guaranteed to work and will help you get rid of your stress of having a bad credit. For example, if a bankruptcy comes off your credit report, you may transfer to a “cleaner” scorecard and be compared with customers with better credit than those on your previous scorecard. What’s worse is to be turned down for credit in a store where there are people all around and the cashier tells you loudly that it was denied. Dirty little credit card balance transfer secrets exposed. You have at least understood that most of these credit firms are nothing more than unhinged money grabbers. Please review my credit profile and delete the items. Even so, the credit bureau filed a lawsuit against the former owners of court ventures “for permitting the sale of us info search’s data to ngo. And what he discovered was a little known loophole that nobody talks about that can literally raise your credit score by about a 100 points. In march 2012, global information services group and credit bureau experian purchased a legal data retrieval services company called court ventures. It is worth noting that different credit bureaus compute credit scores differently. 7 secrets your credit report won't tell. Credit bureau secrets exposed review. You are ashamed and embarrassed every time the credit rating subject arises. – fed up of patronizing offers of ‘bad credit’ loans. If you’re ready to fix credit problems that are holding you back, then read up on this…. It is established that these credit companies are nothing just unhinged money grabbers, desperate for more control over people who have no choice. Some of them are designed for certain types of lenders, and those scores place more weight on, say, your mortgage, auto-loan or credit-card payment history than the base score does, says anthony sprauve, senior consumer credit specialist for fico. It’s such a humiliating thing, to be refused anything around the grounds of terrible credit. Not only that but some creditors won’t even lend you money if your credit score is not high enough. You want to get a credit repair program that’s written by someone who knows what they’re talking about – right. If you’re a business owner or just an ordinary run-of-the-mill person, you know how important it is to have good credit. The right thing, they guarantee a 100% money back in case of a credit dispute. To get a general idea of where your credit score stands and how you might improve it, you can use the free tools at credit. An amazing ebook where you’ll have all the tools you need to remove negative items from your credit report in 5 simple steps. Most companies are known to make you feel about two feet tall by having credits that do not match their standards. I decided to go up, to do that i needed a loan, but bad credit was a limiting factor. Your credit worthiness as a person will be determined by how well you manage your debt. Our entire credit bureau system is broken. Credit bureau secrets is extremely recommended by us. A thin credit history can lead to a poor credit score. Credit bureau secrets isn’t a scam. With credit bureau secrets you will have absolutely every single thing you need to start taking agency over your own life. In the most basic terms, credit bureaus work as a reputation service. Do you feel like your credit report is spying on you. It’s such a humiliating thing, to be refused something on the grounds of bad credit. President obama signed credit card legislation in 2009 that changed the way banks have to behave in situations like that above. Sure, your credit card comes pre-equipped with a due date, an annual percentage rate and a group of fees that the issuer sets. It’s a truism, that no matter how a great deal revenue you have got inside the bank, when you have bad credit, you are going nowhere rapid. Weak credit scores mean that your chances of securing a mortgage, loan or credit cards are limited. Shunning credit cards can really help your bottom line, but. Com, which is a website/service that offers tips on how to repair bad credit. In summary – if you’re looking to get better credit, or if your credit is already good and you want to keep it that way, you need to read this book.

Credit Bureau Secrets Exposed

Credit Bureau Secrets Exposed Pdf

And that’s really as simple as it is; it’s just the way you look at it. Credit reporting act allows you ample time to review my report as. You may be able to get an annual fee waived for at least a year if you threaten to cancel your card. Tim erlin, vice president of product management and strategy, feels the security events above and the most recent equifax breach highlight the need for credit bureaus and organizations everywhere to develop a plan that helps them defend against intruders. In my experienced opinion i can not find any other commodity more secure than real estate. Beyond that, the internet is full of more robust login systems, whether it’s through hardware tokens or biometrics. You’ll know that no matter what your credit situation is, you can do a couple of specific things to improve it. Credit is complicated and, sometimes, counterintuitive. Why make that data so useful in the first place. National agencies must provide you with one free report per year, and all must provide a report for a reasonable fee ($11. Computer reseller news, sensitive data for former first lady michelle obama, paris hilton, former secretary of state hillary clinton, and former fbi director robert mueller ended up on the site after attackers gained “fraudulent and unauthorized access” to those individuals’ credit reports. These are matters that deal with lenders, lending institutions and credit repair firms. If you’re thinking of taking out a loan soon, consider reviewing your base fico score ($19. Am requesting that you submit to me a full copy of my credit report. But many more agencies track everything from how you’ve managed bank accounts to your history as a tenant. When they see you, they see someone that they can exploit to achieve their aim. You already know that in such a situation, accessing additional credit may be harder than you may think of. Credit bureau secrets exposed is an e-book that informs users in clear, concise language, the processes to go about raising credit score. Furthermore, it’s important for organizations to continuously assess and remediate vulnerabilities in their it environment with a vulnerability management solution. That rule also applies when rental properties check the credit reports of potential tenants—meaning your score should stay in good shape as long as you find a home within 45 days. Using a secret commercial code rule 609-15 they don’t want you to know about. Credit bureau secrets for you, and we can most certainly say that it is safe for you to. The credit bureau system is broken, and it’s been broken for a long time. Because of credit-reporting agencies’ incumbent stranglehold, we haven’t applied any of those methods to the process of signing up for a credit card. You will be able to refit your wardrobe and move to a beautiful new dream home. You can have a big amount of money in bank but if you have a bad credit, it can still be a big problem for you to buy new assets or stuff. And the sooner we accept that, the sooner we can take agency and actually start to control our own lives. Subsequently, they exposed all affected employees’ tax data and salary details. You need to be capable to treat your household. You finally have a sweet job, an awesome ride and a beautiful girl. There are no hard facts, and the program has been tried and proven useful by various users across the globe. However, always remember that you are a human being who deserves to be accorded the needed respect. The following is a guest post by. Most importantly, it gives you a plan on how to resolve your credit report efficiently and correctly. They use their words very carefully, to make you feel as worthless as possible, so they can treat you however they please. For example, making it easier to freeze your credit would be a good start. I know who the person is behind this credit program and he started off being dead broke with a lot of credit card companies on his back. The hack exposed social security numbers, birthdays, and, in some cases, even credit cards. Sometimes it seems like just about everything personal is included in your credit history, including your name, address and social security number. * all loans made by webbank, member fdic. You’re getting unfairly victimised by a technique that doesn’t care, and naturally you would like to stop it. This week saw the biggest public breach in the history of credit reporting, as equifax reported a hack affecting as many as 143 million customers. As such, select the firms that give free consultation fee initially. A good, solid investment always involves the proverbial "two way street. They see you, and everyone they deal with, as a way for them to make as much money as possible, and for them to increase their power. They see you as a number. Provided to you in order for you to comply with the law. On the information you provided in regards to my credit profile. Been performed, your findings would be much different. That percentage, called credit utilization, is part of the “amounts owed” portion of your fico score, which accounts for nearly one-third of the score. You may be punished for good deeds. You aren’t the pawn or plaything of some credit business, so stop letting them run your life for you personally and talk down to you. I have so many good things to say about this product, but the most important thing is, it worked for me. Your credit troubles can stop today. After all, you know that you’ll pay an arm and a leg in higher interest rates if you have bad credit. During your searches you may have found out that the best way to raise your credit score is by removing negative items from your credit report. It is an amazing e-book that includes five most powerful tools that will enable you to remove the credit history in simple steps. All the tools that you need to remove negative items from your credit report in 5 simple steps. Before the equifax breach, there was the experian breach, the anthem breach, and the opm breach. The frequency by which you make payments will also affect your overall credit worthiness. It’s your state of mind. These letters are 100% guaranteed to work, period. You are fed up of being humiliated and victimized. Credit repair secrets exposed is sold from their website, that you can take a look at via this link:. Substantial parts and amounts of credit reports include the various mistakes that we make. The credit bureau secrets exposed is a book that informs the reader in a concise and clear language the process to follow so as to raise the credit score. When you want to declutter your financial life, eliminating credit card accounts feels good. Credit bureau secrets review – does this thing scam or really work. No longer have to go quiet whenever the topic of credit comes up in conversation. – denied the ability to get a new credit card or loan. Credit bureau secrets is very recommended by us. So they are still given the freedom to put minimum payments to any of the bowls they wish to. You may not see the score your lender sees. I had to wait about 35 days before i started seeing some results on my credit report. “if you have a great credit score, you’re in the driver’s seat,” says beverly harzog, a credit expert and author of confessions of a credit junkie. Collection law states that a collection agency must. Because of the 60-day refund policy, it is as if get the product for free. What i like about kill bad credit. Credit-specific pin numbers are the closest thing the industry has to two-factor authentication, but they’re still rare, even after a major breach like this one. Say you have three credit cards, each with a $5,000 limit. These debt collectors must be in violation of various state consumer. Introducing: credit bureau secrets exposed. – dreaming of a new wardrobe, car or house. Do you have bad credit. This e-book outlines what an individual needs to do to remove “negative items” from their credit report. I do not know of a single investor that will work with any real estate professional looking to borrow money no matter how season they are if they do not have a plan. What is credit bureau secrets exposed. Let’s say you have the average household credit card debt of $5,000, and last year you responded to an offer from first friendly bank for a 0% apr on a balance transfer credit card. Fico, which produces the most widely used credit scores, uses “scorecards” to group consumers into categories. So, what is credit bureau secrets. You begin asking questions, talking to anyone and everyone who might know a few things about credit scores, especially how to correct them. If you cannot make the program work for you, you will have the refund of the total money hassle free. It can feel hopeless, that it’s just ‘’me against the system’’ and that you can’t win. I am in receipt of your. If you keep relatively low balances on all of your credit cards, closing some of them may not inflict much damage on your score. This is where you get the bad news, you are not eligible. They want a good deal. Now, these credit card companies are required to apply payments made by consumers to the bowl with the higher interest rate first, no matter how many bowls you have and which have the biggest balances. Companies possess a habit of making you feel two feet tall for merely getting credit not matching their standards, when it really is entirely like your poor credit arose from a thing that wasn’t even your fault. They see you as a profit margin. I am sure the actions of. Do you feel like sometimes you’re being punished. The last time, another copy of these items. Use the data to manage the debts that you have. So why are we still using a credit system that relies on breachable data. Your entire dream dashed by two words. Fair reporting act that there is no charge for this service based on. Repairing a bad credit score is thus very essential nowadays. ) there have been a few regulations aimed at fixing that — most notably the fair credit reporting act — but it’s still an extremely clunky system, and the average consumer has little awareness or control over their own profile. What if it takes five attempts to remove those items – are you gonna pay the credit repair company five times. Personal property report from lexisnexis, which lists losses related to your personal property. You will get everything single thing you need to start taking agency over your own life. The first step in doing so is getting visibility into what’s on your network – you can’t protect what you can’t see. It will be able to show your current standing as far as bad debt is concerned. Instead, they leveraged publicly available information to bypass the three credit bureaus’ authentication measures by answering all the necessary security questions. Names of your employer or past employers could be on the report if you applied for credit and listed them on applications, says rod griffin, director of public education for experian, one of the three major credit reporting agencies. You want to have the freedom to treat your family. So along the way, credit bureaus have become an identity service, too. I’m sure facebook, google, and paypal would all love to take over from the credit bureaus, and there are real reasons to be wary of that. It’ll tell you in clear, concise ways exactly what you need to do to make the absolute most of life. Whether you are simply an individual looking to erase negative items from your credit report, or you are looking for a way to make a living, credit bureau secrets exposed will work for you. Again, i am enclosing a copy of my credit. My corrected credit report shortly. Acquiring new loans for a person with lower credit loans may seem futile, and if he succeeds, the interest rates are always. I feel that ample time has been.

Credit Bureau Secrets Exposed

T-mobile disclosed another breach less than two years later. You deserve the best in life, and this guide has the exact answers for you. At the time you submit my credit. Repairing a bad credit score. One e-book that seems to be getting a lot of good reviews is “the credit bureau secrets exposed”. So, you need to stop allowing them to control your life and be a master of your destiny. They view it as the bad credit position arose from some factors within your control. You can’t even be considered by the bank – but you have money. It is my understanding that according to the. If you close the two cards with no debt, the overall ratio of your debt compared with your credit limits jumps from 27% to 80%. The letters will give you step-wise instructions developed around the federal law. Your credit report and your credit scores are meant to tell "a creditor whether or not you're. It will be able to provide all the needed instructions and letters on the timing and manner to make use of them. Credit profile as reported by your agency and noticed that there are. The credit bureau secrets is a book that i would recommend to you. That outlines my disputes as well as another copy of my credit. Clear your credit history and get a fresh start, enabling loans and higher credit for whatever you might need them for. The book pieces of advice on the need to take a credit report. In a statement posted to its website, experian clarifies that ngo didn’t access any of its databases and instead exposed a “much lower” number of records stored by us info search. The technique, sadly, doesn’t care about any of us. It is essential that businesses prioritize their risks. Videos and testimonials are showing individuals who have their alimony items and child support payments being withdrawn from the report. (convincing credit bureaus that you’re not dead, for instance, is much harder than you think. It is a truism that with a bad credit status, you are going nowhere financially irrespective of the amount of money that you have in the bank. But when i got in front of my first investor i froze up. Equifax made headlines on september 7, 2017, when it announced its discovery of a data breach earlier in the year. A copy of my credit. Credit bureau secrets is not a scam, but an accurate, genuine product that you can trust. Credit bureau secrets, the best and highest quality e-product on the net, they additionally provide you with the best customer support service. Are you gonna pay money again to get those items removed yet again. Credit bureau secrets – credit repair secrets exposed. I guess you probably already know this which is why you’re looking at scott hilton’s credit secret. In addition, inquiries that occur within 45 days of each other count as a single inquiry. You’ll be able to remove your credit history in just a few simple steps, giving you a fresh start in terms of credit. To minimize the effect on your score, you’d be better off leaving all of the cards open, keeping zero balances on the first two and whittling down your balance on the remaining card. Full money back guarantee in case you change your mind about improving your credit, or just aren’t satisfied. They did so without the use of malware or software vulnerabilities. Select the best credit repair company. I say this because after corresponding with you for. After grabbing this ebook, you’ll no longer feel like you’re being downtrodden, you’ll no longer feel like the plaything of the fat cats, you’ll no longer feel like you need to agonise and lose sleep over every single outgoing of your household. Credit bureau secrets exposed was created by killerbadcredit. You aren’t the pawn or plaything of some credit company, so stop letting them run your life for you and talk down to you. Your equifax report will list your last known employer and occupation, but not your dates of employment or whether you're still employed, says jennifer costello, director of public relations with the credit bureau. Employment information, though, could be there and will vary slightly depending on which of the three credit bureau reports a lender pulls. Credit bureau secrets is not a scam. Many of these lesser-known agencies focus only on negative information. The fair credit reporting act. Credit repair secrets exposed purchase bonus:. A look back to recent years reveals this breach isn’t the first time that hackers have targeted a credit bureau in the united states. Any credit that you may have. If you can’t keep it secure, why stockpile the data in the first place. This is not just something pretty to say, there are video testimonials all over the internet of individuals like you and me getting things like child support payment and alimony items removed from their credit report. You will thus be required to keep checking your credit ratings and scores on the bureau. Some factors leading to these credits may be way in your control. Another reason you won't see salaries on credit reports: "income really isn't a measure of creditworthiness," he says. Along with the sooner we accept that, the sooner we can take agency and essentially commence to manage our own lives. In fact, even if they do manage to get some items removed from your credit report, your creditors can put it back on months later if the found that it was accurate to begin with. Money order instead of a personal check should assist you in a. It is a quite embarrassing thing to be denied access to some services just because of a previous credit. Do you have terrible credit. You can finally achieve all of your dreams, buy anything you want and be treated with respect and decency wherever you go. The history you’ve created with the card will remain on your credit report for about seven years after you’ve closed it. Go on that dream holiday you’ve always wanted. Com has decided to step up and create an ebook that offers a 5 simple steps system to get rid of bad credit:. Because hard money lenders do not want to be stuck managing a delinquent property, they need to determine if your potential property can be profitably cleaned quickly. We treat data as private when it’s already been exposed in breach after breach. And unlike other credit repair programs you see on the internet, the person behind credit secret had no intention of selling these secrets to the public. You’ll finally figure out whether you have good credit or exactly how bad your credit is. For example, being debt-free can result in a dismal credit score, and having high limits on your credit cards may boost your score despite the extra temptation to spend. Young adults who haven't yet utilized credit cards and retirees (who may have paid off their mortgage and other loans and stopped using credit cards) both can suffer the consequences. Website application vulnerability” to view some of the consumer credit reporting agency’s files, access which helped them compromise 143 million u. You will cease to experience the feelings of agonizing your sleep over a single outgoing in your household. It will help you to improve your credit rating and improve your resource management. You are currently dreaming of a new car, house or wardrobe. After what you are thinking in this crazy economic times we are in, people are always looking to put their money to work. Closing credit cards could hurt. Accordance with the law and delete these items from my credit. Accordance with the fair credit reporting act if a company is not. So you went ahead and got the credit card and transferred your balance over. I also prefer to create so i thought why not start a blog and write some stuff down, it might even help some individuals. In fact, in my mid twenties i was scammed by a credit repair company that even had the bbb plaque on their wall. As you can see, going with a credit repair company can be very costly to the tune of hundreds of dollars. Credit bureau secrets, and yes it changed my life forever. The e-book provides valuable information on credit repair and scoring. Lexisnexis also provides a c. So your credit score could fall when you move from one scorecard to another—even if it’s ultimately a positive switch. If you are bankrupt, or you have bad credit, you then know how destroying the situation can be. ) “you don’t need to be held hostage by a credit card that isn’t working for you anymore,” says gerri detweiler, director of consumer education for credit. If you’re a business owner, now is the time to get your financial situation straight for 2015 so you can have more money to put towards your business and even get out of debt. If you’re like most, you have probably thought of transferring over your balance from higher interest cards to a card with a low introductory interest rate, but should you. Fico produces many versions of its credit score. Here are seven items that lenders won't see when they pull your credit report. Credit profile and i must strongly disagree with your findings. Items on my credit profile. You’ll need to also put in some effort to fix it, limiting some expenses and not putting everything on the credit card, which can be inconvenient. What do hard money lenders look for. We only use them for credit reporting because every us citizen has one, and they’re all supposedly secret. If you are looking for an unbiased credit bureau secrets exposed review, then you have landed at the right place. And if you find that you can’t control your spending when you have credit cards, shutting them down is probably a good idea. It’s easy to point to equifax as the problem, and its poor handling of the breach (and possible insider trading) certainly doesn’t help. Continued failure to disregard this matter will be answered by my. Credit bureau secrets exposed is written around some pretty clever workings of united states federal law rule 609 15 u. The thought of doing something about the bad credit makes an individual realize the benefits of financial independence. It’s a truism, that no matter how a great deal funds you’ve got inside the bank, if you have bad credit, you are going nowhere rapid. You need to live the life you realize you deserve. And the sooner we accept that, the sooner we can take agency and basically begin to manage our personal lives. These companies have spent a great deal of time and effort in making sure that the whole system works for them and works for them alone. You are forced to justify and rationalize every purchase payment and decision that you make. The remittance in the form of a. There are several questions any hard money lender worth a grain of salt will want to know:. If you’re thinking about paying those huge fees to a credit repair company, let me tell you you’re gonna be in for a let down and a meltdown. They want to team up with borrowers they feel confident about. This can deflate any dream the prospective investor may have. If, for example, your credit rating is bruised and you're pressed for time, securing a hard money loan for a shot at a great commercial property – that's investing. Your actual rate depends upon credit score, loan amount, loan term, and credit usage & history. You have been denied the ability to access a new credit card or your new loan request has been rejected. The three big credit bureaus — equifax, transunion, and experian — see their customers as the businesses checking people out, not the people themselves. With a new rewards card, you may even be able to capture some extra points. Companies possess a habit of making you feel two feet tall for basically possessing credit not matching their standards, when it really is entirely like your bad credit arose from some thing that wasn’t even your fault. Other than the interest rates that are being charged by these banks and the methods they use for the balance transfers, financial institutions are charging upfront fees for transferred balances. The truth of the matter is that after you’ve paid those big fees to a credit repair company there’s no guarantee that any of your bad credit will be erased. Our final opinion of credit bureau secrets exposed. After reinvestigation of the credit profile, such information is. Even if you tell individual lenders, such as your mortgage holder, that information won't make it onto your credit report. Credit bureaus in some way. Surveys show that the average american household has nearly $5,000 in unpaid credit card debt, most of whom are searching for ways to pay off these debts cheaply. Then there is the problem with professional credit card schemes that banks have been employing since the card act was established. Enclosed a copy of my credit report as well as a written explanation. But you still have a few secrets even your credit report doesn't know. Credit bureau secrets is one of the very best products within the categories of. Always remember that taking a loan to buy high-value items like homes and vehicles will mean that the credit repayment will be highly monitored. Finally be treated with the respect you deserve. Remember: investing involved putting up your time and / or money with the intent of realizing a profitable return. You have a worse credit score, and you need to do something about it, worry not as this e-guide will give you the perfect tips to ensure that this happens. Quite some time and supplying you with numerous copies of my credit. Your bad credit will be an absolute thing of the past and you can start to focus on the things that really matter in life. The only way that these credit cards will work favorably for you is if you are knowledgeable about mitigating the fees that you have to face at each turn, and if you are able to make full payments each month. There are no magic tricks, no secret formulas – just cold hard facts, this is something even the courts have trouble arguing over. You should live the life you understand you deserve. But those numbers haven’t been truly secret for a long time. And closing a card won’t immediately shorten your average account age, another segment of your credit score. Debts can take a formerly happy person, kill his or her happiness by sucking every ounce of it. 4 credit bureau data breaches that predate the 2017 equifax hack. This section has to do with the fair credit reporting act, all this e-book shows you is how to use this subsection to help your situation. Reports from the three major credit bureaus (equifax, experian and transunion) are commonly used to assess creditworthiness. One of the best things about this book is it’s basically free, if you cannot make it work for you, you will be given your money back, hassle free. Credit report as well as a copy of my initial correspondence to you. It’s bad to have your social security number and birthday stolen because criminals can use that information to apply for credit in your name. It’s very easy to feel that, but wait. Summary: if you’ve ever had debt, or bad credit, then you should read credit bureau secrets exposed to find out the truth behind why all this happens, and what you can do to improve your situation. It is an ebook that will teach you how to remove negative items from your credit report in 5 simple steps. If you’re about to shop for homeowners insurance, for example, get your c. Other dirty secrets to know about. Still shopping around for the best goods for your needs and lifestyle. For each type of loan, fico ignores lenders’ inquiries that occur within 30 days of each other. Aware, credit is important in today's world and i feel that i. United states congressional code, title 15, par. You want to take back control. You’ll also learn exactly how to fix and repair bad credit, what factors matter more than others, and what you can do to prevent your credit from getting bad in the first place. Scott hilton’s credit secret – but you’re not quite sure if this is real or whether or not it will work for you. Nine key credit facts to help you get a better rate on a mortgage, negotiate a better deal from your card issuer, or even land a job. From here they then plan on how to use you as they please. Having bad credit can be a big problem as you won’t be able to buy a new car or house. If used responsibly, credit cards can indeed be a great way to manage money, but it’s important to keep an eye on the fine print. You can check it out here: credit bureau secrets exposed. When it comes to mortgage, student and auto loans, you have more freedom to shop for rates without sinking your credit score. Breaches aren’t simply security failures; they’re the inevitable result of a broken identity system. Dealing with unnecessary interest fees can quickly trip you down a dark abyss, so try to avoid them as best you can, perhaps look at personal loans with fixed rates and payments as a more predictable alternative. How did it make you feel. You may have some leeway with fees, too. New credits that you have recently enrolled for. You aren’t the pawn or plaything of some credit corporation, so stop letting them run your life for you personally and talk down to you. You are tired of patronizing offers associated with bad credit. Your transunion report will list, "if available," your current employer and occupation, plus the date employment was verified, the hiring date and/or the date the information was reported, says clifton o'neal, spokesman for the bureau. Getting a favorable credit report. Credit bureau secrets does not contain the information you need, you can make a refund request and will acquire a full and immediate refund. This means you should try to gather your w-2s for the past few years, bank statements for at least the last six months, as well as what you're offering as collateral in the event that you might possibly default on the terms. These professional credit cards are none other than business credit cards, which aren’t protected by the act. Stovall and i started this site because i just adore buying on-line and studying new methods to improve ones. Buy credit bureau secrets today, and start along the path to your dream lifestyle. My credit profile has been completed and i must strongly disagree. Bankruptcy recovery firms are also discussed in detail. There are a lot of companies in the credit repair industry that are complete scams. (your utilization is calculated both for individual cards and your overall credit. Use our credit dispute package and see results guaranteed.